What Is Dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia is a brain-based learning disability that affects fine motor skills, particularly writing, through adulthood. It is more common in individuals with ADHD. Learn more about dysgraphia signs & symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment here.

Woman helps child with symptoms of dysgraphia

What is Dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing ability and fine motor skills. It interferes with spelling, word spacing, and the general ability to put thoughts on paper, and makes the process of writing laboriously slow. Dysgraphia is a neurological disorder that can affect both children and adults.

An estimated 20-60% of children with ADHD also have one or more learning disabilities like dysgraphia. When the act of forming letters requires so much effort that a child forgets what he wanted to say in the first place, it’s not surprising that children with dysgraphia often hate to write, and resist doing so.

Dysgraphia is usually identified when a child learns to write, but it can remain hidden until adulthood, particularly in mild cases. Those with dysgraphia occasionally have trouble with other fine motor skills, like tying their shoes — but not always. In elementary school settings, it’s estimated that approximately 4 percent of children suffer from dysgraphia. By middle school — when the complexity of written assignments starts to increase dramatically — estimates can get as high as 20 percent.

Dysgraphia Symptoms

  • Trouble forming letters or spacing words consistently
  • Awkward or painful grip on a pencil
  • Difficulty following a line or staying within margins
  • Trouble with sentence structure or following rules of grammar when writing, but not when speaking
  • Difficulty organizing or articulating thoughts on paper
  • Pronounced difference between spoken and written understanding of a topic

[Could Your Child Have Dysgraphia? Take This Test]
[Take This Dysgraphia Symptom Test for Adults]

What Are The Different Types of Dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia manifests in three general ways, each one requiring its own treatment plan:

Dyslexic dysgraphia: In this form of dysgraphia, spontaneously written text (meaning writing that hasn’t been traced or copied) is most strongly affected, and is often illegible — particularly as it goes on. Spelling, either oral or written, is extremely poor. Drawing and copying are not affected. Finger-tapping speed, a commonly used measure of fine motor skills, is in the normal range.

Motor dysgraphia: Motor dysgraphia most strongly affects fine motor skills, so finger-tapping speed is highly abnormal. All forms of writing — either spontaneous or copied — are close to illegible. Drawing and tracing skills are far below average. Spelling skills are usually normal.

Spatial dysgraphia: This type of dysgraphia most strongly affects the spatial relationship between the writing itself and the medium on which it’s written. This means all forms of handwriting — and particularly drawing — are highly problematic. On the other hand, finger-tapping speed and spelling skills are close to normal.

How Are Dysgraphia Symptoms Diagnosed?

If you or your child have demonstrated the symptoms listed above or other persistent problems with writing — usually, but not always, appearing by elementary school — consult either the school’s special education staff or, in the case of adults, your primary care doctor, who can refer you to a dysgraphia specialist. If your child’s school can’t test for dysgraphia (or doesn’t want to), look for an occupational therapist, pediatric neurologist, or a neuropsychologist with experience in the disorder.

[Free Download: The 9 Conditions Most Commonly Diagnosed Alongside ADHD]

A specialist can assess a patient’s writing ability, fine motor skills, and (if applicable) academic progress to determine whether dysgraphia is the culprit. Tests for dysgraphia usually include a writing component — copying out sentences or answering brief essay questions — as well as a fine-motor component, in which you or your child will be tested on reflexes and motor speed. The specialist will try to get a sense of both the quality of the writing — how well do you or your child organize thoughts and convey ideas — and the physical act of writing itself. Does writing hurt? Are letters formed correctly?

Why Is Dysgraphia Diagnosis Critical?

The act of writing something down helps most of us to remember, organize, and process information, but children with dysgraphia who struggle with the mechanics of writing learn less from assignments than do their peers. On top of that, when the physical act of writing is incredibly challenging, a child can’t effectively “show what he knows.” He may fail an exam simply because he can’t translate his thoughts and answers to paper.

When a child encounters such classroom defeat frequently, especially in the early years of schooling, it doesn’t take long for academic discouragement to develop into a sense of inferiority that undermines all attempts to learn — and that often persists to adulthood if the dysgraphia is not caught and treated. This is just one reason why early evaluation and diagnosis is so critical — though a diagnosis can bring relief and progress at any age.

How is Dysgraphia Treated?

If your child is diagnosed with dysgraphia, meet with the school’s evaluation team to request services or support. Reducing the emphasis on writing and/or the required daily amount of writing allows most children with dysgraphia to work successfully in school.

Uninformed teachers have been known to tell students with dysgraphia to “just practice” by writing more often and focusing more intently on what they want to say. But more practice is often not what kids with dysgraphia need to improve their writing; rather, they need the right practice — both at school and at home. This often involves letter-formation drills, fixing incorrect grips on pencils or pens, and using handwriting-specific training programs like Handwriting Without Tears.

Adults who lived with undiagnosed dysgraphia for years have likely learned to avoid writing as much as possible in their daily life — a pursuit that gets easier every day in our increasingly computer-based society. If writing is still a concern for you, however, you can request accommodations at work — like being allowed to type notes during meetings or making use of speech-to-text technology — that can take the focus off handwriting and make day-to-day tasks easier to handle.

Children and adults alike may also benefit from working with an occupational therapist on letter formation, fine-motor skills, and cursive writing, which can be easier than printing.

Dysgraphia At a Glance

Comorbidity with ADHD · An estimated 20-60% of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also have one or more learning disabilities or language problems.
Suggestive Symptoms · Handwriting is slow and/or illegible
· Inconsistent spacing, or running out of space on the paper; irregularly sized letters
· Speaking the words out loud while writing
· Omitted words in sentences
· Difficulty with grammar and syntax structure
· Avoidance of writing tasks
· Difficulty organizing thoughts when writing them down
Professional to See Evaluation should be conducted by a school psychologist or special education professional. School supports may be provided by special education professionals and/or your child’s classroom teacher.
Treatments & Medications ·  There is no medication to treat learning disabilities
·  Your child may qualify for an IEP to receive special-education services including math supports
Recommended Resources · LDAmerica.org
· NCLD.org
· LDOnline.org
· WrightsLaw.com
· The Misunderstood Child, Fourth Edition: Understanding and Coping with Your Child’s Learning Disabilities by Daniel Ansari, Ph.D.

[Self-Test: Is It A Learning Disability?]

Updated on March 5, 2020

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