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Was Vayarin a Proven ADHD Treatment? Questioning Nutraceutical Clinical Studies

ADHD expert David W. Goodman questions the research that linked Vayarin to improved ADHD symptoms, and advises both prescribers and patients to be mindful when reading clinical effectiveness claims.

Earlier this week, the maker of VAYA products quietly announced that it would no longer sell Vayarin, Vayarin Plus, or Vayacog to consumers in the U.S. This abrupt disruption leaves patients who have been taking these medical food products in a quandary. While the announcement from parent company Enzymotec cites “a strategy of primarily serving as an ingredient supplier to other companies rather than engaging with consumers directly” as an explanation, I would argue the reasons may go deeper.

The truth is that research did not support Vayarin’s promised benefits for children with ADHD. Yes, it’s true the company cited “clinical studies” that said it worked — and herein lies the problem. The double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 200 children actually showed it didn’t work on any of the eight scales rated by teachers and worked on only one of eight parent-rated scales.

The company then extracted a subset of children with inattentive ADHD and reviewed that data. With this data, it was able to extract some positive findings. This analysis is called “post hoc” (after the fact) and is not kosher in research data interpretation. The company cherry-picked positive findings and put them in promotional and advertising materials. A consumer or prescriber would have had to read the original published research with an expert’s eye to see the true “no different from placebo” findings. In December 2015, I wrote a blog reviewing this study in detail and it remains posted at

Neither prescribers nor the general public — in reading media stories, promotional materials, and patient testimonials — have a good way of discerning the quality of clinical research. Keep in mind that the placebo effect in psychiatric trials can be as high as 25%. So, patients have no way of knowing whether a friend who says “this is great” is experiencing a true medication effect or just placebo response. And prescribers are often unaware of the gerrymandered data being served up as clinical benefit.

What Does That Mean for Prescribers and Patients?

While initial medication trials make headlines, the science of effective treatment is in research replication. In my opinion, the Vayarin example is illustrative of how nutraceuticals are being marketed and sold in the U.S. today: Design a trial to optimize the outcome, manipulate the data, choose only positive findings, and lay out promotional materials to prescribers and the public, knowing that few will critically review the data. For example, research has shown the omega fatty acids can help ADHD symptoms, but their contribution to improvement is only about 15%. The supplements may help, but not a lot.

If you’ve been recommending Vayarin or other similar nutraceuticals for ADHD:

  1. Moderate hopes of benefit with healthy skepticism. Use proven treatments with years of high-quality clinical research.
  2. Be mindful of the marketing techniques of all nutraceuticals and medications.
  3. Read original research trial abstracts online at
  4. Seek out true expert opinions when considering complementary and alternative treatments (CAT) for any medical condition.
  5. If you prescribe or try complementary or alternative treatments (CAT), write down the target symptoms to change, plus changes observed each month for three months before deciding if it really helps.

David W. Goodman, M.D., FAPA, is a member of the ADDitude ADHD Medical Review Panel.

3 Comments & Reviews

  1. They say doctors are terrible businessmen and Dr. Goodman knows little about business.

    He’s also apparently ignorant of the market for managing ADHD through natural treatments, which is odd since ADDitude has a host of info about natural remedies.

    Lilly Constance apparently knows what Vayarin meant to parents.

    I’m in all the social media groups too for natural treatments for ADHD. And parents were LIVID. Many do rely on these treatments. No one ever said that Vayarin was a cure for ADHD, but even if it helps 15% (it’s probably a bit higher), that’s still about a million people. That’s a decent sized market.
    So no. Vayarin is not being discontinued because it doesn’t work. Let’s look at we know.

    IFF/Frutarom acquired Enzymotec.

    IFF clearly was not interested in Enzymotec’s krill business.

    So OBVIOUSLY they were also trying to sell off Vaya Pharma. But there were no buyers.

    Or something else happened.

    The Vaya assets have value. There’s A LOT of people that take Vayarin that love it. It’s patented. There’s a ton of doctors that recommend it. There WAS good will associated with Vayarin, except that they discontinued their product in a shameful way–not giving patients any notice or opportunity to order more until they figured something out.

    But just watch. Someone is going to buy those assets. This is all business. And it will likely be the party that was looking to acquire it earlier. Except they chose to wait and buy the assets in a liquidation.

    And in three, six, or nine months, some new company will come riding in like the white knight to save Vayarin. But they are probably the very people that caused the frantic concern of all the patients last weekend.

    Dr. Goodman. When you bash natural treatments, are you candid about your involvement as a principal investigator for drugs treating ADHD? Your posts on Vayarin do seem a little unethical without such notice.

    1. Gosh, SDaniels is desperate to deny Goodman’s good counsel regarding NUTRITION and TREATMENT of ADD, and Goodman’s lucid ‘walk-through’ of how trials’ results were cherry-picked (? yes, rendered INVALID) to ‘show’ successful results– that Daniels goes on about MARKET POTENTAL and ASSETS VALUE of a branded encapsulation of . . nutritional lipids, called “fatty acids,” in capsules containing nothing that can’t be had at lower price, higher nutritional substance, and the pleasure of eating, in the form of. . good food.

      Worse, even further down the slope of intellectual dishonesty, are Daniels’ blatant misconstruals: Goodman speaks of ‘at most 15% improvement of a patient’ and Daniels morphs this into 15% of the ADD population to ‘show how very many could benefit’from his favored branded capsules. There’s more, but please note that Daniels skirted the meat of Dr. Goodmans’ arguments to allude that Goodman was dishonestly slamming ‘nutraceuticals’ because of being involved with pharmaceuticals (that HAVE been shown to work in multiple trials that Goodman was no part of!)

  2. My son has ADHA. We started him on Vayarin halfway through the third grade. I work in Special Education and have been trained on how to track date. I have watched children on ritalin suffer terrible side effects, data I professionally documented. My son was adopted from another country and I was not willing to effect his brain development with a drug. After 7 weeks on Vayarin I started seeing (and documenting) mood changes. He was able to express himself verbally. At 9 weeks his ticks disappeared. We did not share any information with his teachers. Fours months after we started the Vayarin I was called in for a meeting with his team, he jumped 5 reading levels in just four months, improved his math skills and began participating in class.

    Recently we went on vacation and I left the Vayarin sitting on the table. I was unaware that I was not going to be able to have the prescription filled anymore. Within 5 days he was ticking, unable to keep sequence his thoughts and was stuttering.

    We tried it on our son with ADD for a year and it had no effect.

    I have no intention of putting my child on a medication.

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