The ADHD Brain

Secrets of Your ADHD Brain

Most people are neurologically equipped to determine what’s important and get motivated to do it, even when it doesn’t interest them. Then there are the rest of us, who have attention deficit — ADHD or ADD — and the brain that goes along with it.

Drawing of the brain of someone with ADHD and anxiety
left and right brain functions concept, analytical vs creativity

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a confusing, contradictory, inconsistent, and frustrating condition. It is overwhelming to people who live with it every day. The diagnostic criteria that have been used for the last 40 years leave many people wondering whether they have the condition or not. Diagnosticians have long lists of symptoms to sort through and check off. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has 18 criteria, and other symptom lists cite as many as 100 traits.

Practitioners, including myself, have been trying to establish a simpler, clearer way to understand the impairments of ADHD. We have been looking for the “bright and shining line” that defines the condition, explains the source of impairments, and gives direction as to what to do about it.

My work for the last decade suggests that we have been missing something important about the fundamental nature of the ADHD brain. I went back to the experts on the condition — the hundreds of people and their families I worked with who were diagnosed with it — to confirm my hypothesis. My goal was to look for the feature that everyone with ADHD has, and that neurotypical people don’t have.

I found it. It is the ADHD nervous system, a unique and special creation that regulates attention and emotions in different ways than the nervous system in those without the condition.

The ADHD Zone

Almost every one of my patients and their families want to drop the term Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, because it describes the opposite of what they experience every moment of their lives. It is hard to call something a disorder when it imparts many positives. ADHD is not a damaged or defective nervous system. It is a nervous system that works well using its own set of rules.

[Take This Test: Could You Have ADHD?]

Despite ADHD’s association with learning disabilities, most people with an ADHD nervous system have significantly higher-than-average IQs. They also use that higher IQ in different ways than neurotypical people. By the time most people with the condition reach high school, they are able to tackle problems that stump everyone else, and can jump to solutions that no one else saw.

The vast majority of adults with an ADHD nervous system are not overtly hyperactive. They are hyperactive internally.

Those with the condition don’t have a shortage of attention. They pay too much attention to everything. Most people with unmedicated ADHD have four or five things going on in their minds at once. The hallmark of the ADHD nervous system is not attention deficit, but inconsistent attention.

Everyone with ADHD knows that they can “get in the zone” at least four or five times a day. When they are in the zone, they have no impairments, and the executive function deficits they may have had before entering the zone disappear. People with ADHD know that they are bright and clever, but they are never sure whether their abilities will show up when they need them. The fact that symptoms and impairments come and go throughout the day is the defining trait of ADHD. It makes the condition mystifying and frustrating.

[Get This Free Download: What Every Thorough ADHD Diagnosis Includes]

People with ADHD primarily get in the zone by being interested in, or intrigued by, what they are doing. I call it an interest-based nervous system. Judgmental friends and family see this as being unreliable or self-serving. When friends say, “You can do the things you like,” they are describing the essence of the ADHD nervous system.

ADHD individuals also get in the zone when they are challenged or thrown into a competitive environment. Sometimes a new or novel task attracts their attention. Novelty is short-lived, though, and everything gets old after a while.

Most people with an ADHD nervous system can engage in tasks and access their abilities when the task is urgent — a do-or-die deadline, for instance. This is why procrastination is an almost universal impairment in people with ADHD. They want to get their work done, but they can’t get started until the task becomes interesting, challenging, or urgent.

How the Rest of the World Functions

The 90 percent of non-ADHD people in the world are referred to as “neurotypical.” It is not that they are “normal” or better. Their neurology is accepted and endorsed by the world. For people with a neurotypical nervous system, being interested in the task, or challenged, or finding the task novel or urgent is helpful, but it is not a prerequisite for doing it.

Neurotypical people use three different factors to decide what to do, how to get started on it, and to stick with it until it is completed:

1. the concept of importance (they think they should get it done).

2. the concept of secondary importance — they are motivated by the fact that their parents, teacher, boss, or someone they respect thinks the task is important to tackle and to complete.

3. the concept of rewards for doing a task and consequences/punishments for not doing it.

A person with an ADHD nervous system has never been able to use the idea of importance or rewards to start and do a task. They know what’s important, they like rewards, and they don’t like punishment. But for them, the things that motivate the rest of the world are merely nags.

The inability to use importance and rewards to get motivated has a lifelong impact on the lives of individuals with ADHD:

How can those with an ADHD diagnosis choose between multiple options if they can’t use the concepts of importance and financial rewards to motivate them?

How can they make major decisions if the concepts of importance and rewards are neither helpful in making a decision nor a motivation to do what they choose?

This understanding explains why none of the cognitive and behavioral therapies used to manage ADHD symptoms have a lasting benefit. Researchers view ADHD as stemming from a defective or deficit-based nervous system. I see ADHD stemming from a nervous system that works perfectly well by its own set of rules. Unfortunately, it does not work by any of the rules or techniques taught and encouraged in a neurotypical world. That’s why:

People with ADHD do not fit in the standard school system, which is built on repeating what someone else thinks is important and relevant.

People with ADHD do not flourish in the standard job that pays people to work on what someone else (namely, the boss) thinks is important.

People with ADHD are disorganized, because just about every organizational system out there is built on two things — prioritization and time management — that individuals with ADHD do not do well.

People with ADHD have a hard time choosing between alternatives, because everything has the same lack of importance. To them, all of the alternatives look the same.

People with an ADHD nervous system know that, if they get engaged with a task, they can do it. Far from being damaged goods, people with an ADHD nervous system are bright and clever. The main problem is that they were given a neurotypical owner’s manual at birth. It works for everyone else, not for them.

Don’t Turn Individuals with ADHD into Neurotypicals

The implications of this new understanding are vast. The first thing to do is for coaches, doctors, and professionals to stop trying to turn people with ADHD into neurotypical people. The goal should be to intervene as early as possible, before the individual has been frustrated and demoralized by struggling in a neurotypical world, where the deck is stacked against him. A therapeutic approach that has a chance of working, when nothing else has, should have two pieces:

Level the neurologic playing field with medication, so that the ADHD individual has the attention span, impulse control, and ability to be calm on the inside. For most people, this requires two different medications. Stimulants improve day-to-day performance for a person with ADHD, helping him get things done. They are not effective at calming the internal hyperarousal that many with ADHD have. For those symptoms, the majority of people will benefit by adding one of the alpha agonist medications (clonidine/Kapvay or guanfacine/Intuniv) to the stimulant.

ADHD medication, though, is not enough. A person can take the right medication at the right dose, but nothing will change if he still approaches tasks with neurotypical strategies.

The second piece of ADHD symptom management is to have an individual create his own ADHD owner’s manual. The generic owner’s manuals that have been written have been disappointing for people with the condition. Like everyone else, those with ADHD grow and mature over time. What interests and challenges someone at seven years old will not interest and challenge him at 27.

Write Your Own Rules

The ADHD owner’s manual has to be based on current successes. How do you get in the zone now? Under what circumstances do you succeed and thrive in your current life? Rather than focus on where you fall short, you need to identify how you get into the zone and function at remarkable levels.

I usually suggest that my patients carry around a notepad or a tape recorder for a month to write down or explain how they get in the zone.

Is it because they are intrigued? If so, what, specifically, in the task or situation intrigues them?

Is it because they feel competitive? If so, what in the “opponent” or situation brings up the competitive juices?

At the end of the month, most people have compiled 50 or 60 different techniques that they know work for them. When called on to perform and become engaged, they now understand how their nervous system works and which techniques are helpful.

I have seen these strategies work for many individuals with ADHD, because they stepped back and figured out the triggers they need to pull. This approach does not try to change people with an ADHD nervous system into neurotypical people (as if that were possible), but gives lifelong help because it builds on their strengths.

[Read This Next: 6 Things You Didn’t Know About the ADHD Brain]

William Dodson, M.D., is a member of ADDitude’s ADHD Medical Review Panel.

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Updated on June 11, 2020

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  1. In his article ‘Secrets of Your ADHD Brain’, Dr. Wiilam Dodson makes the statement that “The 90 percent of non-ADHD people in the world are referred to as ‘neurotypical’.” By definition this means that only 10% of people in the world are considered to have ‘an ADhD nervous system’. Where does this ‘90%’ statistic come from? Just because ‘the world’ is deliberately designed to function in a ‘nerotypical’ way—to include all of the business-, time-, and money-based systems that define the world we all live in (like it or not)—does this necessarily mean that 90% of human beings have a so-called ‘neurotypical’ nervous system and see life and the world around them in a ‘neurotypical’ way? Are people characterized by ADhD really that widely outnumbered by ‘normal’ people? I tend to think not.

  2. Dr. Dodson suggests that, “Rather than focus on where you fall short, you need to identify how you get into the zone and function at remarkable levels.” But this brings up a fundamental question: To what extent are non-neurotypical people being encouraged to ‘get in the zone’ so that—as always—they can be able to conform, think, and behave in neurotypical ways, for neurotypical reasons, which are important to neurotypical people, in a neurotypical world?

    1. Hi Jim- I don’t know where you get the impression that Dr. Dodson is suggesting that people with ADHD should conform into neurotypicals.

      Did you not see the section in bold titled “Don’t Turn Individuals with ADHD into Neurotypicals?”
      “The implications of this new understanding are vast. The first thing to do is for coaches, doctors, and professionals to stop trying to turn people with ADHD into neurotypical people.”

  3. Are there peer review studies behind this articles facts? This article did an amazing job of describing the internal struggle and the argument of changing the label of being “Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder”. I do not feel like it is a deficit however the expectation of our Nerotypical society we can feel as if we have shortcomings.

    1. The pleasure of being organized is the feeling that one is in control of their surroundings by eliminating excess clutter from the environment.

      I am also more motivated to stay organized in order to compensate for the excess mental clutter that exists from my ADHD. To me,
      Dr. Dodson is correct because I am essentially still gaining pleasure by performing this type of activity.

  4. Dr. Dodson,
    Excellent article- it truly taps into the “real world” of “ADHD/ ADD” and contains the verbage that I attempt to use in my Child, Adolescent, and Adult Psychiatric practice in NYC which has become the focus of my practice!
    I would love to use your article as a guide to give to my patients who still believe that the DSM 5 criteria to define their disorder, which is tragic if you are not opposed.
    Dan Cohen M.D.

  5. This article was a good effort for explaining the secrets of the ADHD brain but after I read “The 90 percent of non-ADHD people in the world are referred to as ‘neurotypical’”, the credibility of the article went downhill from there. It’s never a good sign when early in an article you read something stated as fact that is so obviously wrong. I know that people within that 90% who have ASD without ADHD are definitely not neurotypical. And with further reading I saw a few contradictions and several overgeneralized points the author made about people with ADHD, with which as someone with ADHD, I completely disagree.

  6. Hey Doc, I’m a 32 yr old female having recently been diagnosed with ADHD and this article is by far the best and most informative I’ve ever read on the topic. Ive tried explaining my ADHD to people exactly as you’ve described it and no one ever really believed me because of the stigma it carries. I’m sure there is some truth to the stigma but I think that’s due to misdiagnosing people who display bad behaviour or have loud personalities etc
    I’m studying mental health at the moment and I strongly agree with you regarding nuerotypical education not being suitable for the ADHD brain. I was always considered a distraction to other kids when I went to school, and the teachers constantly separated me from my friends – this ended up just making me hate school and I had no motivation to succeed. Now that I’m attending adult education, I freely work on an assignment while in class and my involvement in class discussions and attentiveness during lectures is astounding.
    Given the right tools, directions and freedom to thrive upon their own set of rules allows the person to exceed beyond their expectations.
    Thanks for sharing your theory, it’s made me feel so much more confident in myself and I now know how to better tackle any future obstacles.
    – Mizzkristabelle

  7. Your article concerns me — particularly as its been incorporated into google’s definitions. It’s certainly flattering if you have ADHD to think you are then of superior intelligence, however this doesn’t seem to be really research or data based so am wondering how you came to this — see:

    It concerns me that your opinion is being taken as definitive. I found your article tracking back from a definition on google. Yipes. I have ADD, and of course would LOVE to believe these flattering attributes. However, it seems to not be fact based.

    1. On a related note….the sentence, “Despite ADHD’s association with learning disabilities, most people with an ADHD nervous system have significantly higher-than-average IQs,” smacks of ignorance. I liked the article over all. However, this sentence implies that people with LD are all of average or low IQ. There is plenty of evidence showing LD in people with all IQ levels.

      I want to trust this author. I like what he has to say. That one sentence makes me doubt the authority of the whole article. Please, amend the article or explain the intention.

  8. This is a great article, until it lumps everyone with ADHD as the same. I have ADHD but am very organized. I don’t need something to be pleasurable before i do it. Everybody is different and has different degrees and properties of ADHD.

  9. As someone with ADHD, riding the short bus to school early years being ‘categorized’. At age 5 I was thinking I dumb, and spent educational years trying to not let parents down OR annoying my teacher by staring at the clock. In the business world I flourished. And, always, seen as that guy that solves things, navigating nuance.


    Big middle finger to you writer.

    Not in a mean way. Just that you’re article reinforces my brain as lesser.
    At the same time, my brain get’s you’re shit done.

    Sit Down!

    1. I don’t think the author described your brain as a lesser brain. In fact, I think he was most complimentary to anyone with an ADHD brain and recognized underlying commonalities for people who are not neurotypical. My reaction was one of relief as I read his description. He values the ability to see the world in an atypical way and so do I.

    2. Why do you think you are not being mean? Quick to judge and make premises without even reading what the author has written. The author actually said that ADHD is different and not deficient.

      I really liked what he said about ADHD people making their own rules to thrive! No wonder, many of them are entrepreneurs or self-employed.

  10. Thank you!!!! This formulation of words makes so much sense! The arts thing helps, statistics being outline is go show that there variations in the individuals it outlines it by saying 100 traits can be in other conditions etc rather then thinking they’re hard facts more just and outline. The stepping back is sooo real for me I flukes teaching myself to do this, another example of is the disobedience it’s not that it’s done on purpose it’s a response of not conforming because we hate to lie to ourselves for the sake of a topic of low to no importance, this is why it is I have done the things I’ve always done and taken the time or been able understand my responses or my blunt personality,
    This article is so ingenious because it’s purely written from and observation but so genius because no one I’ve come across has been able to word it so clearly.

    Thanks Doc

  11. A lot of the information in this article resonated with me, but one thing I don’t like is this idea that seems more and more commonplace that ADHD and other conditions aren’t disorders, but are “differences” to be “celebrated.” I have ADHD Inattentive Type (though back when I was diagnosed, it was still called ADD, and I think the name change to ADHD to lump what may in fact be similar but distinct disorders into one was a mistake). I also have Duane Syndrome, a disorder where the nuclei in the brain that become the sixth cranial nerves didn’t form correctly, and as a consequence I cannot move my eyes normally. They can turn inward toward my nose, but can’t turn outward toward my ears. So I see double if I try to look to the side by turning my eyes.

    Obviously something went haywire when my brain was developing in utero for me to have both Duane Syndrome and ADHD. I recognize my Duane Syndrome is a disorder, I accept my inability to move my eyes normally as a deficit, I have no need to reframe it as a “difference” to be “celebrated.” If I had my druthers, I would rather be born with eyes that move normally. It’s the same situation with my ADHD, there is no reason not to acknowledge that it is a disorder, that I have executive functioning deficits. If I had my druthers, I’d rather have developed normal executive functioning skills.

    It’s not like it creates defeatism. Just like I adapted to having Duane Syndrome by turning my head rather than my eyes as a compensatory strategy, I learned compensatory strategies to deal with my ADHD, and have become a reasonably successful person with a graduate degree, a stable career, and a successful marriage. But I accomplished all this in spite of having ADHD. It doesn’t “impart positives”, it’s a disability

    For decades those of us with ADHD were stigmatized and struggled to have our ADHD recognized by schools, etc. as a legitimate condition, because unlike physical conditions (like Duane Syndrome), it couldn’t be seen. Those with ADHD with impulsive/hyperactive type were dismissed as “unruly”, “poorly behaved.” Those like me with inattentive type were called “lazy.” It was a long road for ADHD to finally be recognized as a protected disability under Section 504 of the Americans With Disabilities Act, and yet still there are teachers and employers out there who don’t think ADHD is real, think it is an “excuse.” This politically correct Pollyanna rhetoric of “don’t call it a disorder” is counterproductive, it muddies the waters, feeds into the skeptics’ reasons for not accepted that ADHD is a real thing, and thus undoes decades of work to secure acknowledgement of ADHD as a legitimate disorder whose sufferers are entitled to educational accommodations.

  12. I’m ADHD, and I’ve never been a procrastinator. I’m also very much a lover of organization. If I’m given adequate time, I can totally organize my stuff, my job assignments, etc. I just need to have adequate time, allowing for frequent breaks. I get bored quickly and need to have breaks to go talk to someone for a minute, or to do a few exercises, or something stimulating – all lasting just a few minutes. Then I can refocus and stay on task for something that my brain thinks is mundane. I love to read, but I had problems in school with classes that required excessive amounts of reading to complete assignments. I always had high grades, but this was a real challenge for me. It helps that I’m a perfectionist. That keeps me motivated to complete tasks. Plus I have a strong sense of satisfaction with completed tasks. I’m very goal oriented, I just have to take many detours to get to my destination, to play with the bunny, to smell flowers, to eat a cookie, etc. 😄

  13. I think this is a great article for the most part. I love the idea of taking a notebook around and being a scientist regarding your own successes. Yes that can be very helpful. However, for those who have been experiencing their lives falling apart and time blindness – they need to learn tools to enable them to be more organized and be able to work within time. Yes- those tools need to be specialized to the adhd mind – but the tools exist and many people with adhd don’t realize that they can compensate for time blindness and other executive dysfunctions. Looking to their successes will help them thrive in many ways but not in the areas where they struggle in a way that impacts their lives.

  14. I just wanted to say that in the article you mention that the rest of the 90% of the population is neurotypical, but that is incorrect. ADHD is not the only mental disorder that affects the brain. Therefor, there are many more people in the world that are not neurotypical. So to say that specific sentence was not right. It would have been better to just say something like “for those who are neurotypical…”

  15. I love that there’s a magazine just for adhd and the research for it but you guys need to stop using only he/him/his pronouns for people with adhd. Especially because girls and enby people are so stigmatized already for being adhd. It makes it hard to trust that these studies fully account for women and non-binary. It makes me not want to read these articles.

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