Ritalin: ADHD Medication Uses, Dosage, and Side Effects
Ritalin (methylphenidate) is the most commonly prescribed medication used to treat ADHD and ADD. Learn how it controls symptoms, plus its uses, dosages, side effects, and potential risks and benefits. Required reading for parents and adults with attention deficit.
What is Ritalin?
Ritalin is a brand name for methylphenidate, the most commonly prescribed medication for attention deficit disorder (ADHD). Although technically not an amphetamine, methylphenidate is a stimulant. Methylphenidate was introduced in 1956.
How is Ritalin used to treat ADHD? Is it effective?
Ritalin has been approved for use in patients aged 6 years and older to treat ADHD. In some cases, it may be prescribed for children younger than age 6 who are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
How does Ritalin work to treat ADD?
Exactly how methylphenidate works is still not understood. Most experts agree that it affects the midbrain, the part of the brain that controls impulses. Methylphenidate most likely changes the balance of chemicals in the brain so that it can more selectively respond to impulses.
Researchers at Duke University reported a link between Ritalin and serotonin, a naturally occurring chemical in the brain appears to inhibit behavior and activity. The Duke study seems to indicate that ADHD symptoms may be reduced by raising the level of Serotonin in the brain.1
Is there any difference between Ritalin and the generic methylphenidate?
Chemically, the two are identical. No difference in effectiveness has been shown to exist. However, there are some anecdotal reports from patients with ADHD who feel that name-brand Ritalin is more effective for them or their children than the generic version. These claims, however, have not been validated through any clinical trials or other research. Whether these differences are caused by the medications or by a placebo effect among patients is unclear.
What are the side effects of methylphenidate or Ritalin?
Some side effects may disappear during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. However, check with your doctor if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome:
More common: Loss of appetite; nervousness; trouble in sleeping
Less common: Dizziness; drowsiness; headache; nausea; stomach pain
Check with your doctor as soon as possible of any of the following side effects occur:
More Common: Fast heartbeat (tachycardia); increased blood pressure
Less Common: Black, tarry stools; blood in urine or stools; chest pain; fever; joint pain; pinpoint red spots on the skin; skin rash or hives; uncontrolled movements of the body; unusual bleeding or bruising
Rare: Blurred vision or any change in vision; uncontrolled vocal outbursts and tics (uncontrolled and repeated body movements)
With long-term use or at high doses: Mood or mental changes; loss of appetite and unwanted reduction in body mass
Symptoms of overdose: Agitation; confusion (severe); convulsions (seizures); dryness of mouth or mucous membranes; false sense of well-being; fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat; fever; headache (severe); increased blood pressure; increased sweating; large pupils; muscle twitching; overactive relexes; seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there; trembling or tremors; vomiting
Does Ritalin affect a child’s growth?
Research from the University of Iowa found that Ritalin does not affect the final adult height of children who use the medication. This study confirms research from as early as 1976 on the growth of children taking methylphenidate and other medications used to treat ADHD. 2A 1988 study also found that methylphenidate does not compromise final adult height.3
View Article Sources
1Oades, R.D. (2008). Dopamine-serotonin interactions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Prog Brain Res. 172:543-65. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(08)00926-6
2Gross, M.D. (1976) Growth of hyperkinetic children taking methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, or imipramine/desipramine. Pediatrics.58(3):423-31. PMID: 958770.
3Klein, R.G., Mannuzza, S. (1988) Hyperactive boys almost grown up. III. Methylphenidate effects on ultimate height. Arch Gen Psychiatry. (12):1131-4. https://www.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800360079012