You know, I think maybe talking to other doctors would be the best thing for you. I am a social worker with the same profile of difficulties, and I can understand why it’s not possible to use the usual methods (ex: recording patients). Often you have to digest information in disorganized or distressed forms, sometimes chaotic conditions, and be able to do a quick analysis. The working memory issue almost creates a bottleneck that means you might leave out details in your analysis and only realize after. I know that there are doctors who suffer from ADHD and I think they would be the best people to make concrete suggestions in consideration of your actual demands.
Hallowell Centers might be useful (Edward hallowell is a Child Psychiatrist with ADHD. I believe he still sees patients). Maybe a psychiatrist specializing in ADHD might be willing to give you some executive coaching. Reach out to your supervisor or chief resident who might be able to put you in touch with their friends who have ADHD. I think another MD with ADHD would be in the best position to coach you.
The lawyer above has presented a really awesome strategy. I think a lot of patients would be happy to repeat a story to their doctor, as many complain that doctors don’t listen. No one could make that complaint about you!