I guess it’s easier to have these kinds of conversations with friends who are artists, designers, music people or people who also tend to think randomly. Most of my friends also hop from one random thing to another every few minutes and we laugh a lot about random references. My culinary classmates have short attention spans and randomly burst out in 1 liners out of nowhere. They don’t have add or adhd but I feel that people in the creative fields generally think in a more abstract way.
Maybe it’s easier to adapt to different people gradually. Sometimes I would be a bit quiet around people I am not familiar with or those that seem super serious, then talk a bit more over time. Generally there will be people who like you for the quirky things you say and some who don’t, or people who like you because of your personality even though they don’t get your quotes etc.
Sometimes out missing out what people say may be due to being able to concentrating for short periods of time especially if there are other visual distractions or something. Not sure if you are looking for ways to concentrate on what people say, but listening to podcasts may help. My mind still wanders a lot but I can concentrate a bit longer each week, from 5-10 minutes to 15-20 minutes.