Autism Spectrum Disorder

What Does Autism Spectrum Disorder Look Like in Adults?

Awareness of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adults has grown dramatically in recent years, which reflects both an increase in diagnoses and in the public’s understanding that, even late in life, a diagnosis can offer major benefits and relief. Learn more about the symptoms of autism in adults here.

An illustration of an adult woman with autism.

Could You Have Symptoms of Autism in Adults?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) occurs in all age, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Autism is generally characterized by social and communication difficulties and by repetitive behaviors. Often, severe forms of ASD are often diagnosed in the first two years of a child’s life, but high-functioning individuals may not be diagnosed until much later in life.

Symptoms of autism occur in three main areas:

  • Social interactions
  • Verbal and nonverbal communication
  • Repetitive or ritualistic behaviors

Adults with autism who are high functioning may have only mild challenges, which are sometimes mistaken for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); others may have more severe symptoms, like impaired spoken language. No two people with ASD will have the same symptoms manifested in the same way. Regardless of manifestation or severity, ASD symptoms commonly interfere with everyday life. And as our understanding of those challenges improves, more people than ever are being diagnosed with ASD.

[Self-Test: Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms In Adults]

Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is typically a life-long condition, though early diagnosis and treatment can make a tremendous difference. Common symptoms of autism in adults include:

  • Difficulty interpreting what others are thinking or feeling
  • Trouble interpreting facial expressions, body language, or social cues
  • Difficulty regulating emotion
  • Trouble keeping up a conversation
  • Inflection that does not reflect feelings
  • Difficulty maintaining the natural give-and-take of a conversation; prone to monologues on a favorite subject
  • Tendency to engage in repetitive or routine behaviors
  • Only participates in a restricted range of activities
  • Strict consistency to daily routines; outbursts when changes occur
  • Deep knowledge of one particular topic, such as a certain branch of science or industry

Adults can also exhibit repetitive behaviors and have specific, extreme interest in a particular topic like a sports teams or area of history. These interests may border on obsessions.

Autism Symptoms in Adults at Home

Other peoples’ feelings baffle you. You have a collection of figurines on your desk that must be in the same order at all times. These, and other common manifestations of ASD, may be apparent in adults at home:

  • Your family members lovingly refer to you as the “eccentric professor” of the family, even though you don’t work in academia.
  • You’ve always wanted a best friend, but never found one.
  • You often invent your own words and expressions to describe things.
  • Even when you’re in a quiet place, like the library, you find yourself making involuntary noises like clearing your throat over and over.
  • You follow the same schedule every day of the week, and don’t like unexpected events.
  • Expressions like, “Curiosity killed the cat” or “Don’t count your chickens before they hatch” are confusing to you.
  • You are always bumping into things and tripping over your own feet.
  • In your leisure time, you prefer to play individual games and sports, like golf, where everyone works for themselves instead of working toward a common goal on a team.

[Read This: Why Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder Are Mistaken for ADHD in Adults]

Autism Symptoms in Adults at Work

Symptoms of ASD vary greatly from person to person based on the severity of the condition. These or similar manifestations of ASD may be apparent at work:

  • When you’re having a conversation with your boss, you prefer to look at the wall, her shoes, or anywhere but directly into her eyes.
  • Your co-workers say that you speak like a robot.
  • Each item on your desk has a special place, and you don’t like when the cleaning company rearranges it to dust.
  • You are really good at math, or software coding, but struggle to succeed in other areas.
  • You talk to your co-workers the same way you talk with your family and friends.
  • During meetings, you find yourself making involuntary noises, like clearing your throat over and over.
  • When talking with your boss, you have difficulty telling if he is happy with your performance or mad at you.

In addition, individuals with ASD may exhibit extraordinary talents in visual skills, music, math, and art. And roughly 40 percent of individuals with ASD have average or above-average intelligence.

If you experience these or similar symptoms of ASD, consult a doctor or mental-health professional for a formal assessment and learn more about treatment options for autism symptoms in adults.

[The Most Commonly Misdiagnosed Symptoms of Autism in Adults]

Updated on August 9, 2019

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    1. While I believe it is true that autism cannot be outgrown, I also believe it can be overcome in a limited sense. The more I learn about my 19 y.o. stepdaughter, who deals with ASD and an early Asperger’s diagnosis, the more I believe I would have been diagnosed as a child myself. I experienced all of the symptoms, but in the early ’80s it wasn’t very well understood. Consequently, my mother was very protective to a slight fault: she would not allow me to participate in any school programs which may have helped me with understanding that I actually did have a neurological social disorder. Now, at age 40, I believe that I still have many of the symptoms but have learned to overcome them. However, I’m also at a point where I no longer feel like I can continue to contribute to the traditional workforce. My childhood annoyances and pet peeves still irritate me to the point where it is difficult to concentrate on projects or focus on anything relevent to urgent tasks. Mentally, internally, I feel like I am melting down but on the outside I mask such feelings… More often than not, I mask them to the point where nobody realizes what I’m going through until I snap.

      Anyway, my point is this: we’re all a little autistic. How well we cope early in life decides how far we may get in life without assistance. I feel like I’ve hit a glass ceiling and it will hold my family back. But I’m also very nervous that I will never be diagnosed as I’ve “outgrown” many of the characteristic markers of ASD. And we need to be sensitive towards those who do not understand the difference between outgrowing an obstacle and overcoming one. Overcoming obstacles doesn’t remove them. So yes, it’s a lifelong “condition” that can appear to go away, and many will see that overcoming as a permanent win when it isn’t really. That doesn’t make neurotypical people insensitive or ignorant in general. Nobody understands ASD completely so how could one be “better” at understanding than another? Especially since everyone is different and every ASD-diagnosed individual is different from every other?

      But I’m rambling…

    2. I think your comment is unnecessarily harsh and unfair. Yes ASD is with you for life. But after nearly 20 years working with people with significant ASD, I can tell you that we’re all just people. Those who try and push and are pushed do massively better. They learn to be in charge of their lives to the greatest extent possible. Those who are treated like poor little disabled people will always be that. You know, just like everyone else? Because people with ASD are just people.

      From day one we start will all of our sensitivities and natural instincts. Many of them must be blunted and managed by learning through childhood how to live in the world as it is. Sensitivities reduce. Fears are reduced. Excitement and enthusiasm leads to growth and knowledge. People with ASD are no different. But many parents, often with good intentions, stop expecting their children to grow up because of their diagnosis. They reward bad behaviour, cementing it. They don’t push their children to do their best and to learn as much as possible. They’re almost invariably unaware of, and hence poorly coping with their own ASD. Those children become adults who are unable to live in the real world. And even many of the ones who got good support along the way end up thinking they have an immutable death sentence and give up trying.

      You can’t grow new genes. But you can have expectations and push yourself to get as much out of your mind and body as possible in these brief lives we get. You can do and be almost anything you want. I’ve said this since I was about 20. Your genes are the recipe but you are the cook. I humbly suggest that you stop getting angry with well-meaning people and get cooking!

  1. Sure it can, more or less. People can more or less compensate on all kinds of problems and over time that can make a real change. That’s the definition of high-functioning.

  2. Autism is neurological. You can learn many compensatory behaviors that make life run smoother and the spectrum behaviors less noticeable. However, the autism remains.

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